Saturday, March 14, 2020
Batch Number Search in FamilySearch Historical Records Many of the extracted vital and parish records from the original International Genealogical Index (IGI), as well as some of the collections created through FamilySearch Indexing, are part of FamilySearchs Historical Records Collection. For genealogists who previously used batch numbers in the IGI, batch number search in the Historical Records Collection offers a shortcut to searching a specific records collection. Batch numbers also offer yet another way to manipulate your results at FamilySearch.org to find what youre looking for. What Is a Batch Number? Entries in the IGI come from two major sources of information: 1) individual submissions submitted by members of the LDS church and 2) information extracted by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from parish records and other vital records of birth, marriage and death from around the world. The latter group of extracted records are the ones that have been moved from the IGI into the Historical Records Collection. Batch numbers were also used to identify some of the record groups in FamilySearchs Vital Records Index collections, as well as assigned to many of the collections of indexed records that have been added through the work of volunteers and FamilySearchIndexing. Each group of records submitted has been assigned a batch number, which identifies the specific collection of historical records that an extracted record came from. For example, batch M116481 refers to the collection Ã¢â¬Å"Scotland Marriages, 1561-1910,Ã¢â¬ specifically marriages for Lanark, Lanarkshire, Scotland for the period 1855 to 1875. Records from a single parish will generally be grouped into anywhere from one to several batches. If a batch number begins with an M (marriage) or C (christening), then it usually means the information was extracted from original parish records. How to Search by Batch Number On the FamilySearch Historical Records Collection search page, select Advanced Search to use the Batch Number field.From a Search Results Page, click on New Search in the upper left-hand corner to bring up extra search fields for narrowing your search, including the Batch Number. With the batch number entered you arent required to complete any other field. You can enter only a surname to bring up all records from that batch/collection for that name. Or you can enter a first name only if you arent sure of a surname spelling. To find all children baptized in a particular parish you might try entering only the names (or just surnames) of the two parents. Or to view all extracted records from the batch as a single alphabetical file enter the batch number only, without a name or other information. How to Find Batch Numbers Many of the IGI and FamilySearch Indexing entries in the FamilySearch Historical Records Collection include a batch number in the source information at the bottom of an individual record page, as well as the microfilm number from which the batch was extracted (labeled source film number or film number). You can also find this information by clicking the little down triangle next to a name on the Search Results page to expand the index entry. An easy shortcut to finding batch numbers for a specific parish is offered at Hugh Wallis Web site, IGI Batch Numbers - British Isles and North America (United States, Canada, England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and the Channel Islands). His direct links no longer work with the new FamilySearch site (they still go to the old IGI site which will disappear at some future date), but you can still copy the batch number and paste it directly into the FamilySearch Historical Records Collection search form. Batch Number Guides Guides to batch numbers for many other countries have also been created and put online by genealogists. Some such IGI Batch Number Web sites include: Batch Numbers de los paises latinoamericanos - IGI batch numbers for the countries of Spain, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Peru and Mexico.NumÃ ©ros de BATCHS pour le Pays Basque et la Navarre - Batch numbers for the Basque Country (Spain) and Navarre.IGI batchnummers van Nederland en BelgiÃ « - IGI batch numbers for the Netherlands and BelgiumIGI og VRI Batch-numre for Danmark, Norge og Sverige - Batch numbers for Denmark, Norway and Sweden.Les numÃ ©ros de batch de lIGI - Search the index or browse by dÃ ©partement to find Batch Numbers for France.IGI Index: Deutsches Batchnummern Verzeichnis - Browse for your German town of interest to find batch numbers specific to Germany.Batch Numbers de Italia - IGI batch numbers for Italy.Mexico IGI batch numbers - More than 3579 batch numbers for 32 Mexican states have been added so far.Batch numbers de las parroquias espaÃ ±olas microfilmadas - IGI batch numbers for parishes in Spain. One important reminder. The IGI, as helpful as it is, is a collection of extracted records, which means that there are likely to be some mistakes and overlooked records introduced during the extraction/indexing process. It is best to follow up on events found in all indexed records by viewing the original parish records, or microfilm copies of those records. All records indexed by batch number in the FamilySearch Historical Records Collection are available for viewing via microfilm loan at your local Family History Center.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Gender Inequality - Essay Example According to my analysis, Women are more affected by the Gender Inequality in work places, Families, Politics, National and International affairs. While in some Institutions religion and tradition are the main factors leading to discrimination against Women to a lower status. My analysis has shows that in some society's women begin to experience discrimination right from Homes, sometimes from childhood up to the maturity stage. However, history has noted that Gender Inequality has its roots dated back to over one thousand year within Arabian Peninsula. During that period, the Arab's were in the habit of burying their female children alive, soon after they were born. They had a tradition that portrayed females as unwanted creatures. But with the advent of Islam the dirty tradition was wiped away. What I also learnt explains how in some societies women are not allowed to attain any position like men. Unfortunately, women are denied the right for Education because of Gender Inequality. Though they are allowed to attend schools, their chances of attaining the highest level usually restricted by the norms of religion and tradition. In such societies, only men get the privilege of reaching the highest level of education. I observed that Gender Inequality is on the increase in many parts of the world, especially in the African Continent. In northern part of Nigeria for example, Gender Inequality is on the highest rates, reaching to about 55%. Females are denied the right for education, especially in the rural areas. They have a traditional belief which says: "Females are born to grow and produce children's, cook foods for their husbands, and children's. According to another analysis that I made, I found that in some Institutions if a certain family allows women to attend the highest level of education, such family will be discriminated from others with a negative perception. They will be regarded as the "devils that betrays the tradition of their forefathers. In some societies, despite awareness and education, Gender Inequality is practicing by discriminating against women in work places. Some employers do not offer jobs to female, preparing to offer the vacancies to their counterpart. Even in places where the employers agreed to employ females, they offer them lower salaries, because in such places women are regarded as unproductive element. In chapter 10, from a book Introduction of Sociology written by three authors, under a subject "Gender Inequality" I came across an analysis made, on hoe women hold occupation of the lower rank. The authors have this to say: "The increase of women in the work places in the twentieth Century has influenced many aspects of social life. Though high proportions of women are in labor force around the world, they are concentrated in low paying routine occupation" In another paragraph, they also have this to say: "Despite more women moving into higher ranking position, pay between the sexes remains unequal". (Introduction to Sociology)". I have learnt that the Gender Inequality does not exist only in African continent, but it is a Global problem that affected the entire races. It is a natural phenomenon that causes greatest challenges
Monday, February 10, 2020
Critical Analysis - Essay Example Finally, it will highlight on the collective root causes, issues and problems that arose as a result of chattel slavery and then it will analyze approaches to abolishing chattel slavery. Origin of Chattel Slavery in North America Since slavery was incorporated in the world, slaves were viewed as property and could be moved as easy as when the owners wanted. This did not take long to be incorporated in the North America. This is so since from the time slaves were bought, or kidnapped in Africa, they were immediately treated as property to be exported into North America. There are various reasons why slaves were treated as property. First, the constitution at that time stipulated that as long as someone was white, they had the right to life and own property. This meant that black people were not considered as human beings by the law since they did not have the right to own property. This being the case, then they were treated as property which could be sold or bought as their masters w ished. Chattel slavery also started in north America as a way of ensuring that slaves respected their masters and did anything they were asked. This is so since being property meant that they could eat, sleep and wear clothes at their mastersÃ¢â¬â¢ pleasure. This resulted in the black slaves loosing respect for themselves resulting in their at most obedience to their masters. Another reason why chattel slavery was introduced in North America was to ensure that slaves did not run away from their masters. Slaves were branded to ensure that everyone including the slaves new that they were someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s property. By doing so, the Whites ensured that a slave could not run away since there would be nowhere else they would go. This was the case because if a fugitive slave was caught by white people he/she would have been returned to his master who had branded him/he and severely punished through whipping or sometimes execution. Chattel slaver was legal in North America since it was pr otected by the constitution. In fact, even after the declaration of independence changes to the section on slavery had been architected in such a way that it would not have been changed for the next two decades. Fugitive Narratives and abolition of Slavery Fugitive slave narratives were stories either written or oral about the life and accomplishments of a slave who had ran away from their masters or a free slave. These narratives became so influential North America that they are considered a tradition in the United States of America. These narratives were instrumental in the abolition of slavery in North America since they resulted in many slaves revolving against their masters asking for their rights as they too were also human beings. These stories talked of how a slave experienced freedom and how in other parts of North America and the world black people were respected and treated as fellow human beings. In fact most scholars consider slave fugitive narratives as the major facto r that led to the abolition of slave trade. This is so since it was through them that black people started to revolt against their masters and even fight for their freedom some even willing to die. As a result slavery got abolished since many slaves ran away from the southern states to join the war in favor of the union side of the American civil
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Porfirio DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership tactics Essay Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diaz was able to manipulate other politicians as well as his surrounding leaders. He created great relationships with regional leaders, reminding them that the growth of MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s economy would also create economic growth for them.  Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diaz created peace among the Catholic Church supporters, and opponents. Diaz enforced new laws, reforming church privileges.  Ã¢â¬ ¢ In order to boost the economy, Diaz looked to foreign investment. He gave tax breaks for international investors, used foreign capital to pay for infrastructure, and always encouraged trade with other countries (i. e Britain, United States, Germany, etc.).  Ã¢â¬ ¢ To maintain political power and approval, Diaz regularly jailed those who spoke out against him or his policies, resulting in many editors and writers being imprisoned and opposing leaders Ã¢â¬Å"disappearingÃ¢â¬ .  Porfirio DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s Presidential Terms Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diaz served as president first in 1876, though the public realized his love of power, and elected a new president, Gonzalez, after DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s first term. After a term of Gonzalez, Diaz then reclaimed presidency, and stayed in power from 1884 to 1910, a grand total of 30 years.  Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diaz eventually lost power in 1911, after several public uproars and criticismÃ¢â¬â¢s about Diaz came forth, and the Maderistas took up arms against him. Soon, a revolution at the battle of Casas Grandes, took place, defeating Porfirio Diaz.  Juan Manuel de Rosas accomplishments Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rosas walked into a politically unstable, Argentina. To fix this, Rosas believed in a greater amount of power for the governor. Through doing so, Rosas became a tyrant like leader, similar to Diaz.  Ã¢â¬ ¢ During his reign, Rosas increased exported beef and hides, ended the ongoing civil wars, obtained much more land, and declined foreign debts.  Leadership Style of Rosas Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rosas was extremely oppressive, not always being sympathetic or thoughtful, often showing no mercy to those whom he though betrayed him.  Analysis The Caudillos Juan Manuel de Rosas and Porfirio Diaz are two extremely powerful men in Latin American history, each changing different things about their country in different ways. However, one thing is consistent when analyzing both; they were masters of political power and maintained it better than most leaders. The rise and preservation of power does not come from simple charisma or character. Each leader devised strong strategies and processes, ensuring them the necessary support to rule a country for such an amount of time. After first being elected president in 1876, then losing his position to Gonzales, Diaz then reclaimed the presidency from 1184 to 1910, meaning he remained in power for a total of 30 years.  Diaz did this by manipulating others around him, including other authorities as well as the public. Those who did not agree with Diaz or spoke out were punished. Many were imprisoned or found disappearing. Aside from the public, Diaz also took care of threatening opposing authorities by creating great relationships with regional leaders. These relations, military power, and strive for strength created the everlasting regime of Porfirio Diaz. Like Diaz, Juan Manuel de Rosas grew to be extremely powerful during his country of ArgentinaÃ¢â¬â¢s, time of need. Again, being similar with Diaz, Rosas, while powerful, was also oppressive, as many Caudillos of the time soon became. Through a letter written by a citizen to Juan Manuel de Rosas, in which the man pleads for his daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s safety, Rosas is unmoved by the article and executes the daughter. This is a prime example of the leader ship style of Rosa. Though, it does raise the question that if he was so oppressive and powerful, why was he in office for so long? When Rosas arrived in Argentina, political chaos was obvious. In order to ensure stability, Rosas implemented many changes in the government, including giving more power to the governor, which in turn, saved Rosas job for the future, allowing him to become a tyrant like leader. Both of these Caudillos illustrate humanÃ¢â¬â¢s crave for power, and the manipulation, deception, and devilish processes that can be used to maintain this power. We can see both of these men as great leaders, as they thoroughly accomplished what they decided was best. We can also see them as great lessons, teaching us of the dangers of leadership and the risks it often involves. Conclusion The view of past and present Caudillos will consistently change with the person the view is from. However, one thing is clear. Juan Manuel de Rosas and Porfirio Diaz were two Caudillos of political excellence, maintaining a long and influential regime. This was accomplished by both, through their personal triumphs over the previous government of their nation as well as a triumph over threatening authorities around and within the nation, such as Diaz regularly jailing those who spoke out against him or his policies. Rosas and Diaz both knew what they wanted and had valid processes in accomplishing this; though the moral values of their actions are up to discussion. This situation is common throughout history, including skilled leaders such as Hitler, Stalin, and Castro. Juan Manuel de Rosas and Porfirio Diaz display patterns of the past and expectations of the future.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Shiven Patel The geography of China and Japan is quite different. They are both located in Eastern Asia, but China is apart of the mainland, while Japan is a group of islands off in the North Pacific. China, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s fourth largest country, is considerably larger than Japan. China has a total area of 9,596,960 square kilometers while Japan is only 377,8356 square kilometers. Of course Japan has double the coastline of China for it is an island chain. China has an eastern coastline along the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s main geographic aspects are the Yangtze River and the Himalayan Mountains. Deserts and high plateaus characterize the west, with plains, deltas, and hills in the east. There is a varied climate from tropical to subarctic, the main weather hazard is the monsoon. JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s islands are peaks of underwater volcanoes such as Mount Fuji. There are no major rivers, just rocky land and an irregular coastline. There are valleys an d plateaus along the coast. It is cold and dry in the north, warm and wetter in the south. Earthquakes and typhoons plague Japan. The governments of China and Japan are completely different. The worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest Communist party leads China. The president is a ceremonial figure. Executive powers are given to the State Council headed by the premier. The legislature, the elected national PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Congress, has little power. Japan is a constitutional monarchy, but similar to England, the emperor is a symbol ...
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
This was a birthday to be remembered. It had been two years since I had seen my dad, half brother, and stepmom. They came to visit from Los Angeles the week of my birthday. It was also days before Christmas. I knew this birthday was going to be special because I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember the last time we were all together for my birthday or Christmas. IÃ¢â¬â¢m thankful for the special birthday dinner I had with my family. On the day of my birthday, I had to go to work. After work, I hurried home to get ready for dinner. We all met at my sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s house at 6:30 P. M.Ã When I walked inside, nobody was ready. Everyone including my nieces, nephew, sister, and brothers were busy watching television or playing on their I phones. I looked around and saw my dad and stepmom in the kitchen preparing food. I asked them, Ã¢â¬Å"what are you guys doing? Ã¢â¬ and my dad said, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve decided to have dinner at home instead of going out to eat. Ã¢â¬ I thought that was a great idea because I would rather spend quality time with them at home instead of at the restaurant. Then I started to look around to see what he was making. I saw a big pot of boiling stock. At that point, I knew we were having a hot pot. Hot pot consisted of simmering a metal pot of stock placed at the center of the dining table which was fueled by a portable butane gas stove. While the hot pot was simmering, ingredients were placed into the pot and were cooked at the table. AhhhÃ¢â¬ ¦. I was so excited about the evening because hot pot was one of my favorites. The weather was cold and raining outside while the hot pot was simmering which made the house felt warm and cozy. There was no better meal for this particular day than a hot pot. My dad took all day to prepare the food. He cut and cleans various uncooked items including meat (lamb, beef, chicken, and duck), vegetables (bok choi, bean sprout, daikon, tofu, tomatoes, taro, lettuce, and mushroom), seafood (fish, squid, lobster, prawn, crab, clam, and oyster. ) He had to pull apart the crabs, scrub the clams, and shuck the oysters from the shell; preparing the food was the most difficult part of the meal. Finally it was time for dinner. Everyone started to load the food individually into the hot cooking broth with their chopsticks. When the food was cooked in the pot, it was usually eaten with a dipping sauce. My favorite was the clams, so I grabbed a lot of clams and loaded it into the pot with the strainer and gently placed it over the boiling water and watched the clams open. Once they opened, I placed them in my bowl and started to dig in. Hot pot wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t like any regular meal because it could last for hours. Everyone would eat or wait for the food to cook while talking with each other. Even after I was full and I would sit there and listen to everyone talk and then I got hungry again. We would usually eat late into the night when we had hot pot for dinner. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine a better time than Christmas time to be with my family sitting around at the dinner table admiring each other. Besides my dad and step mom, my oldest sister, three older brothers, a half brother and my sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s five children were there. Even my mom and step dad came over to celebrate and some of my cousins too. Because of my parentÃ¢â¬â¢s divorce, it took a lot for all of us to be sitting around the same table. This meal was unforgettable.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Nurseries provide nearly 1.5 billion trees for planting in the United States each year. This represents over six trees annually propagated for every U.S. citizen. The United States Forest Service reports that nearly 3 million acres are forested with those billion and a half baby seedlings. For those that are interested, here are answers to questions on Tree Planting Statistics for the United States. I now want to break down planting trees in manageable bits for you. I will provide answers to the following questions with links for further information: Ã Why and Where Should You Plant Trees?When Do You Plant a Tree?How Do You Plant a Tree?Where Do You Get Trees to Plant? Why Plant a Tree? Planting a tree can have tremendous influences on communities. Tree planting improves our environment. Planting a tree can add to our incomes and decrease energy costs. To plant a tree can enhance our quality of life and improve our health. I cant think of many things that touch us so completely as does planting a tree. My point is, we need trees to be planted! Art Plotnik, in his book The Urban Tree Book, indicates eight reasons to plant trees . Trees reduce sound, produce oxygen, store carbon, clean the air, gives shade and cools, reduces wind and erosion and increases property values. This book, a big seller, attests to the fact that people also enjoy studying and identifying trees. Identifying trees is a hobby that millions of Americans practice. There are plenty to ID with over 700 tree species growing in North America alone. My most popular destination sites at About Forestry deal with identifying and naming trees. People cant seem to learn enough. First, take this simple quiz and find out how much you really know about tree planting! Where Should You Plant a Tree? Use common sense when planting a tree. If the planted tree is expected to grow tall or expand widely, give it the room it needs for future growth. Understanding species moisture, light and soil needs is extremely important. Plant according to the nursery instructions. A USDA tree and plant hardiness zone map is one good guide in helping you determine a treeÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to withstand an average minimum temperature. I refer to plant hardiness zones a lot when reviewing individual trees: See: USDA Tree Hardiness Zone Maps by Region More on Where You Should Plant a Tree Wildland tree planting (the most practical method of tree planting for reforestation) is done during dormant winter months, most often after December 15th but before March 31st. You may need to do it a little earlier or a little later in warmer or colder climates. Your nursery can help you decide. Always observe the ten commandments after seedlings are delivered. Although you do not plant most wildland trees during the summer you should make sure you have ordered your trees for the season by early summer. Many people who wait until fall to find available trees just might not find any seedlings. Always order your seedlings as early as you can. Planting urban trees is a little different. Horticultural planting has evolved into an all year operation because of the extra protection of a root ball with each tree. Any season is OK for planting balled or burlaped trees. More on When You Should Plant a Tree For simplicity, I want to divide planting into two categories - horticultural and wildland planting . Horticultural tree planting is geared toward urban situations where landscaping is of primary concern. Generally speaking, because these trees contain an intact root ball, they can be planted in any season. Where these higher valued saplings and trees are planted to enhance property, more effort should be spent on each individual tree. Kim Powell, Extension Horticultural Specialist, explores the types of trees available for transplanting and gives tips on purchasing, planting, and maintaining tree transplants . Here is a how to on planting balled in burlap saplings: Planting Balled Saplings Also, you would be well advised to take my Tree Wellness Quiz before planting the saplings. Dont worry about your score. The object here is to find out what you know and to give you some help with the things you dont know. Wildland planting, the preferred method for reforestation, is done over a much broader area. Even though this type of planting is cheaper on a per tree basis, it can be very expensive in total and should be done correctly. A plan can make your planting effort more effective. Reforestation using bare-root seedlings is done by government, industry, and private individuals. The plantings are most often made using coniferous species. Hardwood wildland planting is also a viable practice, but hardwood regeneration techniques also include sprouting and dormant seeds. Many times these non-planting techniques are the preferred methods of regeneration. Also, federal and state cost-share programs have historically supported funding pine, spruce, and fir planting over hardwood planting. Here is a how to on planting bare-root seedlings: Planting Bare-root Seedlings Coniferous planting techniques are similar for most species. I have included planting guides for the western United States created by Colorado State Forest Service and for the southern United Sates created by South Carolina Forestry Commission . These sources give you a good overview on how to deliver, handle, store, and transplant seedlings. You must use proper care with a big emphasis on the correct temperature range and moisture level. Again, always observe the ten commandments. More on How You Should Plant a Tree By now you have either decided to plant some trees, or have chucked the whole idea. If you are not too discouraged, let me help you get in touch with a nursery that can provide you with trees and suggest companies that can supply you with equipment necessary to the task of tree planting. First off, you can purchase trees over the Internet. I have a short list of reliable companies where you can buy a seedling or sapling online. Check out my seedling supplier source page An excellent forest nursery directory providing most tree species and covering the entire United States is maintained by the U.S. Forest Service. Also, you can find tree nurseries at most state forestry departments. You also may need some special planting tools. There are on-line specialty supply companies that provide equipment for natural resource managers. These forestry supply companies have a variety of planting equipment as well as other forestry equipment. So, the Tree is in the Ground... Things are pretty much out of your hands after the trees are planted. You have to leave things to Mother Nature. My experience has been that even when considering a freeze, insects, or fire, moisture is the most critical element in seedling survival for the first year or two. Trees and Drought is a short feature explaining the effect of the lack of moisture on trees, especially seedlings and saplings. Actually, most well-established trees will tolerate drought quite well, although much depends on the species and whether they are growing on an appropriate site.